Filing Rules – the good stuff

CoreFiling’s Katherine Haigh and Joe Leeman are active contributors to XII’s Filing Rules Working Group. In this interview, we find out what motivated them and what insights they’ve gained that are useful either to regulators, filers or both.

Why did you join the Filing Rules Working Group?

Katherine: Part of my responsibility as Head of Quality Assurance is to check filing rules and filing manuals for our clients, so I have a good understanding of the things that work and the things that don’t. Any contribution we can make to improve the consistency and quality of filing rules not only benefits the market, but helps me in my job!

What does the Working Group do?

Joe: We’re analysing several filing manuals from a broad range of organisations in order to understand the current market practice. This work gives us a good insight into both the structure of filing manuals and also the content, the sort of rules that get included and how they are described.

Katherine: In addition, we’re looking for evidence and opportunities to automate the processing of filing rules as much as possible.

That’s interesting Katherine, what’s the reason for that?

Katherine: So, well-structured filing manuals and well-written filing rules lend themselves to automatic testing of reports and submissions. Having these processes automated not only builds consistency, it reduces the manual effort required by report preparers by giving them the opportunity to automatically test their reports prior to submission. It increases the level of first-time correct filings, reducing the workload on the regulator’s incoming processes.

Joe: Here at CoreFiling we offer validation modules to our customers that provide exactly that service – it’s much easier to write these and keep them current if we’re relying on well-structured manuals and well-composed filing rules. As Katherine said, this service enhances the reports preparation and submissions processes for our filer customers. In some cases, we provide the same automated validation software to both the regulator and their filers, meaning the filers can have 100% confidence of the validity of each report before submitting.

What other insights have you got from this work?

Joe: Interestingly, we’ve found a few anomalies that are potentially embarrassing for regulators and publishers of filing manuals!

Can you give some examples?

Katherine: Yes, we’ve seen examples where a regulator has clearly just copied content from another filing manual with no understanding of what the rule is supposed to achieve. It’s simply a copy-paste exercise. This is bad for the filer community, since it imposes an unnecessary constraint on their report, adding to the cost and effort, but adding no value to the filer or to the regulator.

Another example occurs in the Eurofiling space, where the supra-national regulator imposes a set of “should” rules in their filing manual. These rules might be, for example, to capture some useful statistical information that is not essential to the regulator. The National Competent Authority (NCA) then increases the severity of this rule to a “must” rule. All the organisations filing to that NCA are then required to submit the requested information in their reports or suffer having their report rejected.

As above, this process adds more effort and cost to the filers without creating any benefit to either filer or reporter. Though the supra-national regulator does always get the extra information they want.

So, there are definitely issues with current practice in filing manuals. Is it all bad?

Joe: Fortunately, no, it’s not all bad. We’ve seen some examples of great practice that, to be frank, should be adopted by all publishers of filing manuals. For example, those manuals that include a description of the goals, objectives and context for the filing rules are far easier to interpret and comply with. Rules that are properly arranged in a logical structure are also much easier to implement. For example, EBA categorise their rules into 5 classifications: filing syntax, instance syntax, context-related, fact-related and other. By doing this they allow the filer to see immediately where each rule should be applied.

Other examples are to have a consistent numbering system. Again, the EBA chooses a particular numbering system for its rules. Some NCAs just copy this numbering scheme, which we would support. Others choose to create a completely new numbering scheme, which adds to confusion and makes it difficult to compare rules and very difficult to automate them.

Katherine: We’d also strongly support the approach of differentiating the XBRL validation rules away from the guidance rules and rules relating to constraints in the submissions portal. This goes along with the idea that XBRL validation rules can easily be automated in the filing process. Guidance rules are more difficult, in that they can be difficult to resolve into clear “pass – fail” expressions. By separating out the constraints imposed by the submissions portal, it prevents some of the copy-paste rules being carried over unnecessarily.

Joe: And while we’re on the topic of good practice, I’d like to see proper versioning in filing manuals so it’s obvious what has changed when a new version of a filing manual is published. Ideally we’d see a consistent identification scheme where each rule is assigned a unique reference, whether a number or an error code, for life. This makes for ease in version control and change management.

In summary then, what guidance can you give to publishers of filing manuals and to the communities of filers that need to comply with the rules?

Katherine: I think for the publishers there are two key messages: firstly, to treat the creation of filing rules with the same rigour that is applied to taxonomy development and publication. The second is to walk a mile in the filer’s shoes, to better understand the limitations, confusion and wasted effort that occur when irrelevant or over-severe rules regimes are applied.

Joe: And for the filer community, it’s not to be complacent. Filers should require their regulators and authorities to provide clear unambiguous filing manuals containing only the rules required to assure successful submission and no more. Also to participate in reviews of any draft manuals published by the regulators, to question any rules that are not clear, and to put the onus on the regulator to explain the need for any specific rules to be applied.

Thanks for the insight, Katherine and Joe – I’m sure that is useful information for publishers and consumers of filing manuals. What’s next for you two?

Katherine: We still have some more filing manuals to review, and a recommendations and guidance paper to publish, hopefully in time for the Data Amplified Conference in November.

Joe: I’d really like to use the insights we have gained in this exercise to help publishers of filing manuals improve their practices and processes in filing rules. I can see the benefit that would bring to the publisher and, as importantly, to their filing community.

Artificial Intelligence: Applications Today, Not Tomorrow.

From reports of the DeepMind scandal a few weeks ago, to several talking spots at this year’s London Fintech week, July has arguably become Artificial Intelligence Month in the Fintech world. But while there has been a great deal of interest in future applications of AI, it seems that less attention is being paid to the AI solutions already out in the wild. Let’s take a look at the state of play for AI today.

Why the rise of AI?

It’s no secret that as computers get more powerful, and society gets more connected, organisations across all industries are feeling the pressure of too much data. Whether you’re gathering it, storing it, or trying to use it, modern data volumes present vast operational challenges. For example, Walmart, the world’s largest retailer, is reportedly building a private cloud that will process 2.5 petabytes of information each hour. That’s one company processing the equivalent of over half a million DVDs (or the estimated memory capacity of the human brain) each hour, every day.

The problem is bandwidth: a human being can only process so much information at once. Using Artificial Intelligence is a good way of dealing with such staggering amounts of data – and although we haven’t quite reached the I, Robot scenario, research into everything from deep learning to artificial neural networks continues to gather pace.

Applications today, not tomorrow.

One way that AI is helping to conquer the data mountain right now is through automation. The advantage of AI in this area is scalability – in theory, AI can learn how to recognise complex patterns of information that would normally require human understanding; AI-based pattern recognition has already been used to build surveillance cameras that can distinguish between people, objects, and even events.

At CoreFiling, we recognise that potential. That’s why we built AI-based automation right into our XBRL document creation tool, Seahorse. Seahorse learns how to interpret the fields in forms, and automatically tags the information, thanks to a form of machine learning called Logistic Regression. And because it’s hosted in the cloud, Seahorse benefits from every filing. Each and every document scanned refines its detection method, allowing Seahorse to achieve incredible levels of accuracy.

Click here to learn more about Seahorse.

A Wealth of Potential: Interview with Ian Hicks

Last week, CoreFiling’s Ian Hicks took part in the FRC’s Digital Future: Data round table, and discussed ways to combat the current “under-performance” of financial data. After the event, we sat down with Ian to talk about the benefits and challenges of using XBRL for Digital Future.

DAN: Is XBRL right for Digital Future?

IAN: Oh, absolutely. XBRL has applications around the world, and it’s flexible enough to meet the main goal of Digital Future, which to me is data versatility. The nice thing about XBRL is that it creates a kind of blank canvas with data, from which you can start to create solutions that meet the specific needs of each client or industry – that could be data automation, integration with other reporting media, and so on. That doesn’t mean it’s a perfect fit, though!

DAN: How so?

IAN: XBRL is a powerful standard, but it needs to be better at hiding complexity. CoreFiling already helped to address this in some instances when Philip Allen developed iXBRL, but XBRL itself still needs specialist applications to be useful.

DAN: You currently chair the XBRL Best Practices Board. Is reducing complexity something you focus on?

IAN: Oh absolutely, yes. But that relies on more than just developing XBRL. To reduce the complexity of an XBRL-based system, you need to take a holistic approach – develop working methods and processes that enhance customer experience, for example, or take advantage of new technologies.

DAN: What would be on your wish list for XBRL development?

IAN: I think the most useful thing for all applications, including Digital Future Reporting, would be to make XBRL a little more visual – more “renderable” – outside of specialist tools. Similar to how Microsoft plug-ins can be embedded in a browser. We’ve already started to address this with our Beacon platform, which renders XBRL instance data and displays it in a format that users can engage with.

From a more technical standpoint, I’d like to see features such as non-repudiation of instances – i.e. was the instance created by an authorized person, have its contents changed, is the date stamp correct, etc. More widespread use of auto-tagging would also be a great benefit to the preparer, accountancy and audit communities, both from an XBRL perspective and from the point of choosing the most appropriate concept.

DAN: How would those advances relate to Digital Future Reporting?

IAN: The Digital Future Reporting model is all about taking advantage of technology. The advantage of using XBRL is that it already supports features like auto-tagging – that’s how CoreFiling’s instance creation tool, Seahorse, is able to auto-tag filing documents, for example. The challenge is just to maximise the usage of these features.

DAN: Do you think XBRL is under-used in the fintech industry?

IAN: XBRL itself has an enormous user base around the world, but I do think its more advanced features are overlooked – which is why the Digital Future Reporting model is so key. But I think the most important thing is to deploy XBRL where it can be of maximum use. There was an interesting discussion in Dublin regarding “NOXBRL” – not a rejection of XBRL as it might imply, but rather the idea of “Not Only” XBRL. This discussion was around hiding the complexity of XBRL reporting from filers. It went on to cover the idea that XBRL is fundamental, but that other technologies should be included to meet the overall regulatory reporting need.

To give you one example, investment analysts have already developed sophisticated systems sourcing data in a multitude of ways, like “web-scraping”. XBRL has the capability to massively enhance these processes through its ability to rapidly and effectively analyse large sets of structured and unstructured data – this ability to enhance other technologies is what makes XBRL so useful. We’re already seeing this in practice in other industry sectors.

Linked Data is another example. Linked Data and XBRL appear to have progressed in parallel: there needs to be closer co-operation to benefit from using both technologies. This co-operation could result in massive benefits to the analyst community by simplifying the process of comparing information from seemingly disparate data sets.

DAN: What about outside fintech?

IAN: Extending XBRL beyond finance isn’t just possible, it’s already happening, and I fully encourage it!

DAN: Can you give us an example?

IAN: Non-financial data looks to me to be the next ideal candidate for XBRL. We’ve already seen something similar in the US, with the SunShot Initiative’s Orange Button Programme – XBRL is going to be used for solar data gathering and analysis. It’s a great idea, because solar data comes from so many different sources across America. You need to keep data like that in a single, consistent format to make it useful. Equally, organisations like AECA in Spain are pioneering the reporting and analysis of sustainability data using XBRL.

DAN: Do you have any advice for people already working with XBRL?

IAN: I think taxonomy developers should broaden their approach when developing a taxonomy. Rather than thinking just about the regulation to be met, they should also consider and take into account, far more thoroughly, the needs of the groups who will be consuming and analysing the data.

I’d also advise the filer communities to require the solution vendors to provide the means to simplify XBRL filing, to hide the complexity from users and report preparers. This could only encourage a more widespread adoption of XBRL in digital reporting.

DAN: Thanks Ian!

IAN: Happy to help.

To find out more about the FRC’s financial reporting lab, and the goals of the future data model, click here. And for information on CoreFiling’s XBRL services, click here.

EDITOR’S NOTE: parts of this interview have been shortened for clarity.

CoreFiling at the FRC’s Digital Future Round Table

This week, CoreFiling’s Ian Hicks joined over 20 other industry representatives in London for the Digital Future: Data round table, hosted by the FRC’s Financial Reporting Lab. Discussions focused on how XBRL can help facilitate Digital Future Reporting: a 12-step model proposed by the FRC that uses technology to combat the current “under-performance” of financial data – read more about Digital Future Reporting here.

The event was a great success, attracting attendees from key fintech organisations (including Vizor, IFRS, Workiva, the FRC, and the Bank of England). CoreFiling was on hand to provide important insights about XBRL and its capabilities – and as chair of the XBRL Best Practices Board, Ian also outlined how to follow best practice when implementing it.

 XBRL and the Digital Future model

As an open source technology, XBRL is a good fit for Digital Future, because it isn’t constrained to a single supplier. The standard is also well established, with many examples of large-scale implementation across the world (including tax ecosystems in the UK, Middle East, and now the USA); XBRL provides a proven framework for creating simple, cost-effective solutions, without needing to “reinvent the wheel” or develop brand new technologies.

As IFRS’s Rita Ogun-Clijmans noted during the discussion, “XBRL should focus on where it fits best into the Digital Future Reporting model” – CoreFiling agrees, as the strength of XBRL lies in its inherent auditability, data provenance, and versatility; XBRL can be linked with other reporting media to assist compatibility.

For more information about XBRL, iXBRL, and CoreFiling’s solutions, visit

UK Government Joins the Party at London Fintech Week 2017

London Fintech Week is back for 2017, with a new line-up of conferences, workshops, exhibitions  and meet-ups for financial innovators. For those who haven’t attended before, London Fintech Week is a 7-day event designed to act as a hub for international financial professionals, held across the City of London, Canary Wharf and East London’s “Tech City”.

The event has gone from strength to strength since its inception in 2014 – and this year’s conference is the biggest yet. Starting on 7th July, London Fintech Week 2017 will host the UK government’s first International Fintech Conference. The conference aims to attract investors to the UK’s “high growth fintech centre”. Click here to read a comprehensive overview of the event by Liam Fox (Department for International Trade) on GOV.UK

Ready. Set. Innovate.

At CoreFiling, we know that developing new technologies is key to the success of the fintech industry – so here are the top 4 events we’re looking forward to most at this year’s London Fintech Week:

  • Regulatory Sandbox Panel. Barclays, Santander and Credit Suisse meet to unlock the potential of regulatory reporting. As experts in regulatory reporting technology, we’ll be watching with interest.
  • Blockchain & Cyber Security Showcase. Blockchain is set to be the next evolution in financial security – but how far can we trust the hype? Thomson Reuters, the Linux Foundation and Applied Blockchain investigate.
  • Machine Learning & AI: Is it OK to Panic Yet? With the recent Deep Mind scandal still fresh in our minds, we look forward to seeing this panel’s take on an important emerging technology.
  • The FCA’s Regtech Update & Innovation Hub Workshop. Innovation is at the heart of what we do at CoreFiling, and as long-time supporters of the FCA, we anticipate big things from this workshop.

A Bright Future for Orange Button & Solar Energy

CoreFiling recently joined XBRL US, the SunSpec Alliance, Wells Fargo and the US Department of Energy’s SunShot Initiative, to co-host the “Orange Button” webinar. This webinar focused on the role of XBRL in the US DoE’s Orange Button program – a solar energy development plan aimed at reducing solar energy costs (and growing the US solar industry).

Mark Goodhand, Head of Research at CoreFiling and a global authority on XBRL specifications, was on hand to give attendees expert advice about XBRL and its features. Solar energy is already big business in America, and a data-led approach is key to its growth; Mark showed that adopting XBRL will simplify and standardise solar data, aiding (and in some cases enabling) all aspects of the SunShot Initiative. The discussion of XBRL’s benefits covered everything from improved feasibility studies and financial projections, to better planning, smarter construction, and support for future research.

Chris Mills then put theory into practice, by taking the audience through a detailed demonstration of CoreFiling’s taxonomy development suite, Yeti.

The webinar was a real success, and gave the audience an exciting look at the bright future of solar development. Click here to watch the webinar on YouTube, or read a write-up on the XBRL US page. You can also get involved with solar energy by attending the InterSolar conference in July.

Launched: Beacon can solve your regulatory submission errors.

Filing rejections are a real problem for businesses that submit to regulators. Even if you have a solution in place to create your XBRL filings, there is no easy way to decode them, or to check what you’re actually sending. Using our 20+ years of experience in data integrity, we’ve created the solution:

CoreFiling is excited to announce the launch of Beacon: our cloud-based filing review platform. And to celebrate, we’re offering free trial access to Beacon for all users.

Beacon is a secure, collaborative review and validation tool that integrates effortlessly into your existing workflow. XBRL filings contain a lot of encoded information that you can’t see (or check) – but with Beacon, you can view that data in incredible, granular detail. The Beacon trial gives you access to Beacon’s advanced review tools: users can upload and review one XBRL document, completely free. Better yet, you can store your document in our cloud for up to three years… and review it as many times as you like.

Plus, we’re holding a free webinar for all filers, showing you how to avoid the most common errors in CRD IV (incl. IFRS 9) & Solvency II submissions.

Here are just a few of the ways that Beacon helps your organisation solve its submission errors:

The Benefits

  • Beacon lets you decode the XBRL filing. You can view your data inside a regulatory template, and see your filing as the regulator will see it. You can investigate broad sections of the filing, or drill down to individual data points, then apply targeted validation rules if you spot an error.
  • Beacon creates an advanced filing management system that’s flexible enough to fit right into your current workflow. Store all your filings in a secure, change-tracked environment. Control data access through custom user profiles. Import LDAP users and connect to your existing data sets with Beacon APIs.
  • Beacon promotes collaboration. Cloud access means colleagues can work together, anytime, anywhere. In fact, Beacon allows an unlimited number of users to view and mark up a filing at any one time. And thanks to Beacon’s cloud architecture, even the largest XBRL documents are accessed quickly – with no performance loss on your PC.

Download the PDF for more information about Beacon.

How do I sign up?

You can access Beacon right away by visiting our launch page, here. All you need to enter is your name, e-mail address and company. And don’t forget to sign up for our free Solvency II & CRD IV webinar too.

Announced: Seahorse® is the T4U Successor

After the recent EIOPA announcement that the XBRL reporting tool T4U will be decommissioned next month, many filers are now looking for a quick solution to keep their submissions compliant.

At CoreFiling, it’s our business to keep you compliant – that’s why we are proud to announce that we are offering a free trial to our cloud-based regulatory filing platform, Seahorse®. The successor to T4U.

This free trial gives you the opportunity to create one complete filing to submit to a regulator – and even better, users will have three months to explore the software before submitting their filing. Here are just some of the ways in which Seahorse® can help your organisation:

The Benefits

  • Seahorse® lets you create fast, error-free XBRL filings. Unlike T4U, its data rendering is XBRL-based, so the reports you send will never have data conversion errors or approximations. The data is 100% accurate every time.
  • Seahorse® is hosted in the cloud. Its architecture lets you update taxonomies instantly, with no tedious installations. You can create and view your filings anywhere, any time.
  • Seahorse® allows you to easily create XBRL filings in the familiar environment of Microsoft Excel.

How do I sign up?

Trial access is available to anyone. To claim your trial, simply visit our website and fill out the sign up form.

XBRL accounting taxonomy design and categorisation – Part 2: Architecture

In this series of articles, we propose a categorisation of taxonomies based on three aspects of their design: architecture, coherence and extensibility.  Using this categorisation we look at the evolution of taxonomy design through three generations.

1. An example of three taxonomy generations

In this article we look at the architecture of three taxonomies that are good examples of each generation:

2. What is architecture?

The ancient Greeks bequeathed us the word they used for the “chief builder” – architect.  Good architecture manifests itself in perceived simplicity, elegance, or consistency of form; making the best or even inspired use of the available materials and prevailing building techniques; enhancing, working with or at least complementing the environment in which it resides; and performing its intended function effectively and reliably.

In the modern world architecture doesn’t just apply to physical structures. In the software world, it can be applied to any moderately complex logical structure. There is little doubt that an XBRL taxonomy qualifies in this regard, so it is reasonable to apply the principles of good architecture to taxonomies.

3. First generation: standards based – the IFRS taxonomy

The International Accounting Standards Board’s IFRS taxonomy has been in existence for over ten years – its latest incarnation is for 2016. By that measure alone it might be regarded as a first generation taxonomy.

Its architecture is derived from the structure and content of the International Financial Reporting Standards. These standards were drawn up without the knowledge that an XBRL taxonomy would be based upon them.

The IASB was breaking new ground when it first developed its IFRS taxonomy, and to provide the taxonomy with authority it was essential to model the underlying standard as closely as possible.  The design focused on ensuring that each concept in the taxonomy mapped directly into IFRS standard which, while being a good way of reflecting the precise structure of the standard, was not able to benefit from the elements of normalisation common to modern IT data design.  The result is a taxonomy that contains silos of repetitive concept definitions, labels and dimensions.  It is also dimensionally incomplete, using dimensions only where they are absolutely necessary to fully describe data relationships.

Secondly, in limiting the content of the IFRS taxonomy strictly to the scope of the underlying standard, it was unable to provide guidance to the builders of other taxonomies based on IFRS until the creation in 2014 of the IFRS Taxonomy Consultative Group (ITCG).  One consequence of this approach is that taxonomies already derived and extended from the IFRS taxonomy vary markedly from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.  This design freedom has turned out to have a critical side effect, which is that it makes it more difficult to compare financial data drawn up against different IFRS-based taxonomies.

4. Second generation: document based – the US GAAP taxonomy

The US GAAP taxonomy has a rigorous and well-documented three-layer architecture comprising a domain model, a logical model and a physical model, with clean separation between the layers.

Similar to the IFRS taxonomy, the US GAAP taxonomy is the embodiment of a set of accounting standards.  It was modelled on the various kinds of documents that arise from the practical application of a set of accounting standards rather than the standards themselves.

The taxonomy is characteristic of architectures that have to cater for, and are developed by, numerous stakeholders.  Each of these stakeholders works with a variety of different documents each of which need to be modelled by the taxonomy leading to an unavoidable loss of focus.

This document-centric model has influenced the taxonomy in a number of ways. These include a proliferation of one- and two-dimensional hypercubes that closely resemble the tables that typically appear in documents and a requirement for HTML-marked-up “text block” data items.

5. Third generation: data model based – the UK FRS taxonomy

The UK FRS taxonomy is primarily based on the International Financial Reporting Standards (though not the IFRS taxonomy) so one might expect similarities with the IASB’s IFRS taxonomy. However, the architecture is very different.

The UK FRS taxonomy has no formally documented architecture, but nevertheless it does have a design that is modular and consistent.  The approach has been to model the data defined by the standards rather than the documents. This allows the taxonomy to focus on the data rather than document structure or presentation.  The key is in understanding the data and its potential dimensionality.

The taxonomy team at the FRC expended a considerable amount of time working with preparers and consumers to analyse over eight million Inline XBRL financial reports that had been produced in the UK since 2011, tapping into their experience to understand how the data is collected, organised and used. This has resulted in a data-centric architecture with a complete and comprehensive dimensional model.

6. Conclusion

We’ve described three contemporary taxonomies in terms of their architecture and indicated why we think each of them are good exemplars of the changing architectural approaches that characterise each of the three generations.

With each generation the foundation of the taxonomy’s architecture has become deeper and more analytical, moving from a model based on standards, to documents, and then to data. In the process, presentation, as an architectural concern at least, has been stripped away.

In following articles we’ll discuss other aspects of these three taxonomies that reinforce this characterisation.

7. A final thought

It is worth noting that you can arrive at substantially the same conclusion by different architectural routes.

If you look at the Presentation Linkbases of these three taxonomies you’ll see much the same document-centric, IFRS-oriented structure, thanks in part to the alignment of reporting terminology.  However, the underlying architectures differ significantly.

Despite this, the architects of these three taxonomies have arranged for users to see and browse the reporting structures with which they are familiar.  It wasn’t necessary to follow one particular method of deriving a taxonomy to do this.  This is a powerful demonstration that presentation is neither a by-product of design, nor something that has to be “designed in” from the outset.

XBRL accounting taxonomy design and categorisation

1. The future of taxonomy design

This is the first in a series of articles in which I propose a novel categorisation of accounting taxonomies based on three aspects of taxonomy design: Architecture, Coherence and Extensibility.

In this first overview article I will introduce the three design aspects. In future articles I will cover these aspects in more detail and examine how they apply to the US GAAP, IFRS and UK FRS taxonomies. The series will conclude with a discussion of how I’ve categorised these taxonomies and how this categorisation might inform the current direction of taxonomy design.

2. Why are taxonomies so important?

XBRL taxonomies are the key components of any electronic financial or business reporting system. An XBRL taxonomy is the formal definition of a financial or business reporting vocabulary for a given jurisdiction or reporting domain, imparting meaning to the concepts which describe the facts being reported and providing a framework within which reports are structured. It defines, the “contract” between reporter and regulator.
Just as importantly, it defines what is not permitted, except insofar as “locally negotiated” extensions allow. A taxonomy also defines relationships between reporting concepts, meaning that the “contract” not only defines the reporting vocabulary (the “what”) but also the grammar (the “how”) – how reported concepts can legitimately be combined and related to each other.
It is for these reasons that taxonomies matter in an electronic world. They are fundamental to any financial or business reporting regime and their design exerts a direct influence on the capabilities and expressive power of reporting and analysis tools.
XBRL tools and technologies are still evolving to suit the market’s needs. Experience has shown that deploying XBRL solutions takes a considerable amount of time and effort, and a large portion of this is invested in taxonomy design and development. Taxonomy authors are continually developing new ways to address the complex challenges of financial and business reporting.
It’s clear that XBRL taxonomies are currently undergoing a period of rapid evolution as they colonise a number of new financial niches, with new taxonomies building on the successes – and avoiding the perceived failures – of previous generations. I’m proposing the establishment of a new classification system for taxonomy evolution, with the hope of illuminating the future of taxonomy design.

3. Taxonomy evolution

In the family tree of taxonomies, those concerned with company financial statements can be broadly classified according to three key aspects. This has resulted in taxonomies that can be classified as belonging to one of three generations.

3.1 Aspects of taxonomy design

3.1.1 Architecture

Some taxonomies model the applicable accounting or financial standards; some model the required reporting documents; and some model the underlying data.

3.1.2 Coherence

‘Coherence’ is the degree to which a taxonomy “hangs together” and permits the creation of a body of instance documents that are consistent and comparable. At one extreme some taxonomies give the freedom to combine reportable concepts with any dimensions and to combine dimensions freely. At the other extreme such combinations are carefully controlled by the taxonomy.

3.1.3 Extensibility

Some taxonomies are very permissive when it comes to extension, to the point that “anything goes”; some taxonomies provide specific extension points so that extension can be controlled, if not actually defined; and some taxonomies provide specific mechanisms to support extension.

3.2 Taxonomy classification

3.2.1 First generation

First generation taxonomies are literal interpretations of accounting or financial standards, where the filer can do pretty much whatever they please with the base taxonomy, and any additional structured information can be captured as a privately-defined but uncontrolled extension.

3.2.2 Second generation

Second generation taxonomies model not the accounting or financial standards themselves but the regime’s required document structures derived from the applicable accounting or financial standards. Additional structured information can be captured in a private extension that should follow certain rules or guidelines laid down by the taxonomy author.

3.2.3 Third generation

Third generation taxonomies move away from an architecture derived from the accounting/financial standards or reporting document structures and instead simply model the data within the taxonomy. Additional structured data can be captured by ‘extension’ mechanisms built in to the data model of the base taxonomy itself.

All three generations exhibit convergent evolution in that they all provide a document-oriented browsing and presentation view that will be familiar to preparers and accountants, but each is derived in a fundamentally different way.

4. A new taxonomy classification system

The key taxonomy design aspects that categorise taxonomy evolution are summarised as follows:

Taxonomy Classification

5. Next article

In the next article in this series I will discuss the Architecture aspect of taxonomy design in depth, with reference to the US GAAP, IFRS and UK FRS taxonomies.

I would like to also thank Andy Greener for his contributions.